Friday, August 23, 2019
Legal Problems - Essay Example The major issue which arises is therefore, negligence on the part of Kowloon Bank and whether they had a duty of care towards Lester and their employees. The salient principles of tort law establishing injury and harm to plaintiffs have been derived on the basis of judgments which have been set out in various cases such as Donaghue v Stevenson1, Anns v Merton Borough London Council2, Murphy v Brentwood DC3 and Caparo v Dickman4, which form the basis for the duty of care that forms the foundation of tort law. All of the above cases have established the Ã¢â¬Å"good neighbourÃ¢â¬ principle, wherein a person owes another a duty of care and this would especially be the case with employees having a duty of care towards their employees. The prevailing standard for medical negligence has been established in the case of Bolam5, i.e, the question of whether negligence has occurred must be assessed based upon whether a body of medical staff finds negligence to have occurred. McNorrie argues that the standards established in Bolam were bad in principle.6 He cites the case of Cavanagh v Ulster Weaving Co Ltd7 where employers were held to be liable for not taking good care of their employees. It must be noted at the outset that Lester had a disability and would have been responsible for equipping himself with necessary aids, such as a crutch in moving around the premises of the bank. Alternatively, he could have also requested such aids from the bank to enhance his mobility. The bank itself did all it could, i.e, providing him an ergonomic chair, etc. On the issue of not putting up signs that the floor was wet, the person liable would be the individual employee/cleaner who failed to post signs to state that the floor was wet, rather than the bank itself. Secondly, the magnitude of LesterÃ¢â¬â¢s injuries might not wholly have been caused by the wet floor, because he was already disabled with a limp. Secondly, the delays which occurred were mainly because of the
Posted by Unknown at 10:39 PM
Inclusive Education in Mainstream Politics - Term Paper Example The definite advancement of the movement on inclusive education is evidenced through declarations, gatherings, statements and various actions taken by governments across the world in the last century. The issue of inclusive education is characterized by deep-rooted conflicts, dilemmas, and contradictions. "Inclusive education should be seen as an attempted resolution of a dilemma that is fundamental to mass education systems: the dilemma of commonality and difference. Put simply, such systems have to offer something recognizably common - an 'education' - to learners who are recognizably similar, while at the same time acknowledging that those same learners differ from each other in important ways and therefore have to be offered different 'educations' (Dyson & Millward, 2000). It is now universally accepted by think groups and policymakers that children with a disability or learning difficulty will ultimately be a part of the mainstream, hence their participation in the mainstream is earlier the better and an early start in mainstream schools is the best preparation for an integrated life. Some of the major milestones in opinion building on bringing inclusive education in the mainstream of policymaking activities include The Universal Declaration of Human Rights ( UDHR, 1948 ), International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination ( ICEARD, 1965), International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights ( ICCPR, 1966), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights ( ICESC, 1966), Convention on the Rights of the Child ( CRC, 1989) and Salamanca Declaration, 1994. The Salamanca Declaration under the overall framework of UNESCO has been particularly noteworthy and it is worthwhile looking at some the key declarations which are given below: Every child has a fundamental right to education and must be given the opportunity to achieve and maintain an acceptable level of learning. Every child has unique characteristics, interes ts, abilities and learning needs, education systems should be designed and educational programs implemented to take into account the wide diversity of these characteristics and needs,Ã Those with special education needs must have access to regular schools, which should accommodate them within a child-centered pedagogy capable of meeting these needs, Regular schools with this inclusive orientation are the most effective means of combating discriminatory attitudes, creating welcoming communities, building an inclusive society, and achieving education for all; moreover, they provide an effective education to the majority of children and improve the efficiency and ultimately the cost-effectiveness of the entire education system" The successive British establishments were seized with issues associated with the shift in economy from traditional to knowledge work, especially the Labour party when it regained power towards the end of the previous century. Peter Drucker said in 1980 that the center of gravity has sharply shifted from manual work to knowledge work in the world of work. The British leadership could see the need for a different focus in educational policy and its deployment.
Posted by Unknown at 1:52 AM
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Strategies and their advantages in connection with the corporationÃ¢â¬â¢s goals Essay Example for Free
Strategies and their advantages in connection with the corporationÃ¢â¬â¢s goals Essay In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s highly competitive market, the continuous changes that are occurring in the social, politic and economic environment create serious challenges in the corporate world. Corporations cannot afford to do business as usual if they want to remain in the game and be successful. In order to achieve their goals and objectives, they need to evolve, adapt, learn and apply different new strategies that will help them secure long-run success and performance. Among those strategies, we are going to discuss ten of them and their advantages in connection with corporationÃ¢â¬â¢s goals and objectives. 1. Environmental Scanning It is the first basic element in strategic planning. It is a process of cautious monitoring of external and internal factors that can affect the future and survival of a firm. It is done through the SWOT analysis where data are gathered, evaluated and analyzed by specific people in the organization. This strategy gives a lot of advantages such as helping the company to assess its outside environment for scientific, social, technical, political and economic changes that can affect its position in the world. It forces management to perform a self-analysis to establish areas of strength and areas that need improvement within the corporation in order to guaranty performance and success. It also helps with forecasting new strategies and promoting new position and vision of the company for the future. In order words, this approach helps corporation gain competitive advantages. 2. Strategy Formulation After defining the corporationÃ¢â¬â¢s internal strengths and weaknesses, external opportunities and threats, the next step is to develop a broad plan to help the organization efficiently reach its goals while monitoring the environment with strategy formulation. It this process the company will determine its mission, vision, objectives, strategies and policies. This strategy helps the organization to determine and understand their purpose, their reason of being, their goals, what they want to achieve, how they will achieve their goals and objectives and finally it gives specific guidelines that help with implementation. It allows everyone from top to bottom to have a clear understanding of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives and what is expected fromÃ them, it also reduces the risk of confusion, waste of time, money and energy among the three levels of management. 3.Strategy Implementation It is the execution of strategies and policies through programs, budgets and procedures to reach its goals. In this process plans are assigned, costs are allocated to tasks for better measurement of return on investment. The firmÃ¢â¬â¢s resources are used and a detailed system is given on how to perform specific jobs. This strategy turns strategies into concrete results and helps implement changes that are documented for future references. It also provides good measurements of projects with a time frame. It gives employees a clear step by step on how to perform their day-to-day tasks that will improve overall efficiency and sets the tone for quality work in all levels of management. 4. Evaluation and Control In this process, the activities performed are evaluated to determine if the corporationÃ¢â¬â¢s goals are being achieved by the strategies that are chosen. If the results are not satisfactory compared to pre-defined standards, management must take correctives actions to adjust the issues. This strategy stimulates the ongoing process of improving performances within the corporation. Since the environment is constantly changing, it is imperative for management to be proactive by constantly reassessing its strategies in order to stay competitive. 5. Initiation of Strategy: Triggering events When an organization becomes too comfortable with its actual strategy, it tends to become contented and not willing to make changes. This situation creates serious setback. It only means that the corporation is not growing and might be left behind in the competition. The triggering event is something that provokes a change in strategy. It motivates management to reexamine the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s position and bring new ideas, new strategies on the table. It helps the corporation to stay alert and informed about new changes in the environment and act accordingly to keep its competitive advantages. 6. Strategic Audit It is the process of analyzing the different function and activities of a corporation to find out its strengths and weaknesses by using a checklist of questions in all areas. This tactic helps identifying specific areas that create challenges and also provide solutions to problems. It also brings fresh perspectives to the company. 7. Organizational Learning Theory It is an organization that instead of imitating competitors or reshaping their environment is willing to use information that is available and using it to be more suitable to its environment. It assertively involves people from all levels of management to have their input into strategic planning. This strategy helps the corporation to act vigilantly in order to adjust and evolve in their challenging environment. 8.Strategic Flexibility It is a corporationÃ¢â¬â¢s aptitude to respond to changes in the environment by moving from one strategy to another in order to adapt. This strategy sustains the corporationÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive advantage in the industry. It also requires that the corporation to become a learning organization that is dynamic and ready to acquire knowledge and use it to its advantage. It also teaches the firms how to solve problems systematically and make them expert in their field of action. 9. Globalization Companies are doing business all over the globe and serve different markets regardless of countries borders. It has affected the way business is done today. This strategy is important for companies that want to stay competitive. It gives opportunities for new markets and economic growth, and also open doors for a cultural learning experience that is an asset for any firm that wishes to become a learning organization. 10. Social Responsibilities of Strategic Decision makers A corporation has not only economic, legal responsibilities but also responsibilities toward society. If those obligations which are both ethicalÃ and discretionary are not fulfilled it will affect the corporation in the long run. Ethical or discretionary duties of today can become laws of tomorrow. By abiding to them, corporations will positively affect their financial performance, give them competitive advantage and good reputation within the community they do business with. Bibliography Wheelen, T. L., Hunger, J. D. (2012). Strategic management and business policy: Toward global sustainability (13th ed.). New York : Prentice Hall, pp. 3-86.
Posted by Unknown at 5:34 AM
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Modern Methods Used In Sheet Metal Forming Mechanics Essay This report elaborates the recent advancements in the process of Sheet-Metal forming in automotive industry since this technique is considered as one of the most important issues in the current industry. Further more in this report brief description is explained on the most modern forming methods like Electro-magnetic forming, Super Plastic forming and Fine Blanking. Based on the understanding and analysis of each forming processes, the best one is suggested. II. Introduction: In the world of automotive industry a lot of metals have to be used to make the parts of an automobile. The metals found are of very rigid shapes and sizes and it cannot be directly used, to make the required sizes and shapes in the automotive industry the main metal working process used is the sheet-metal forming process. The sheet metal forming process is a process in which solid metals can be made into thin or flat pieces, and sheet-metal forming is one of the very fundamental methods in manufacturing. It can be defined as, a manufacturing process which fabricates by shaping or moulding a piece of metal into a sheet.Sheet-metal forming has a number of processes in the present world but a lot of modern processes are being preferred to the classical processes. Usually, fabrication of complicated sheet metal components requires a complex combination of various shaping processes and the final assembly involves welding, riveting and other binding methods. Henceforth a very much afforda ble solution for sheet metal forming is by applying efficient and modern processes like Electro-Magnetic forming, Super-plastic Forming, Fine blanking, Explosive forming, Hydro-forming, Electro-Hydraulic forming, etc.In this report the most modern processes of sheet metal forming are discussed and III. Main Body: 1. Electro-magnetic Forming: Electromagnetic Forming is one of the advanced methods of sheet-metal processes. It is basically called as EMF in short form. Electromagnetic forming has been in use for nearly three decades. The principle of this process is that it makes use of the electromagnetic forces to make a sheet or a part by using high speed velocity forming techniques. Electromagnetic forming works in a way, in which, a current is produced from a capacitor and it is made to pass through a coil to form a strong magnetic field around the coil. The coil is situated in the work piece, thus forming an induced eddy current around the coil the eddy current generates another magnetic field in the metal work piece (El-Azab et al. (2003)). The two magnetic fields have repulsive force with each other and cause a deformation to the work piece. This deformation is permanent due to the stress created on the work piece by the force and this is called as Electromagnetic Forming. So EMF makes the material to stretch at very high speeds. 1.1 Advantages of EMF: EMF has many advantages, they are listed below, It has very high property of repeatability because of the energy output which can be adjusted as many number of times. There is no such contact between any tools to the work piece due to the magnetic fields. EMF does not need any lubricant because there is no tool acting on the whole process and hence leaving no marks created by the tool on the work piece. EMF is basically called as a non-contact process thus it does not have any damage on the work piece. Due to no physical contact extra bits and pieces will not fall out and will thus have less cleaning to do with the sheet. By doing this process the work piece will get a good coating. There is very less time consumption in this process. There will be no friction or physical stress on the work piece as no mechanical forming methods is used. 1.2 Limitations: This process can only make thin sheets because only a less amount of pressure is applied by the coils. The work piece material will have a very short time to stretch as the whole EMF is process occurs in a very short time. 1.3 In Automotive Industry: Aluminium is the main material used to make parts for the automotive industry. There is a great demand for fuel-efficiency in present world and the weight of the automobile is another basic factor. The only possible ways of weight-reduction is by making a controlled design or by using lightweight materials. Aluminium is the best considered material as it satisfies the regarding properties, by using aluminium die-cast materials can be used to make highly complex materials form a single piece, thus it helps in attaching fewer parts more rigidly and hence a rigid body can be created by using Aluminium die-cast materials (Davies et al. (2004)). When taking aluminium in to consideration with its characteristics, increase in rigidity and passenger protection can be achieved without considering the lightness. 1.4 Uses of EMF in Automotive Industry: It is a non-contact process and no touching of the part is needed because the only effect affecting the part is the magnetic field and thus the automotive parts are made damage free. The ductility is very high. Anyone operating the machinery does not need any special training due to the process being noncontact. If there is a comparison between this method and another method, the main benefit for the EMF will be the repeatability. Due the method being a non-contact process and electrical, there is wear and tear of the part even though many numbers of parts is made which can look exactly the same to each other. 1.5 Limitation of EMF in Automotive Industry: This method being electrical, if the materials used have less electrical conductivity then there is no point in using this process. The aluminium part is slightly expensive and that can be one of the problems or the companies which use Electromagnetic forming. 2. Super Plastic Forming: This process is one of the modern processes used in the automotive industry. In short form it is called as SPF which means Superplastic Forming. It mainly involves the super plasticity which means the point at which the metal ruptures due to the strain produced in the process and in which the metal can stretched and made into thin sheets. Super plastic forming process is takes place at increased temperature, where the stress-flow of the sheet metal is less. At first the metal sheets which are supposed to be used is heated at the ends and then a gas pressure is implied when the whole apparatus is inside a simple shape or a complex shape to make a required shape (Davis and Hyrn (2007)). The process involves expanding of the materials but it cannot be applied for materials that do not have super plastic properties. Normally super plastic materials can elongate up to 10 times. Whereas titanium naturally posses super plastic properties and some aluminium alloys and a few stainless steel a lloys also be made to show superplastic properties. Aluminium alloys can expand about 1/4th during the forming process.It was first used widely in making parts for jets and aerospace regarded objects but as time grew automotive industry has used a lot of benefits from SPF. In general superplastic forming uses the sheet forming processes to mainly elongate the work piece by using very high temperatures and SPF can be used to materials which accept the properties of superplasticity. This process helps to make very complex geometry of parts. It is mainly used in making aircraft wings and automotive parts as the metal aluminium is used in which it are stretched by heat. The basic materials used in the SPF are the aluminium alloy which is quiet expensive. The process basically needs nearly 900 Ã ° C regarding the alloy used, dueto this heatthe flow of the stress involved in the sheet material is low(Gallagher (2001)). The sheet material is placed on a SPF die in which a simple or complex geometry is present and then the tooling is given high heat and a gas pressure is implied which in turns deforms to the shape of the simple or complex cavity. There are many different types of properties of superplasticity with regards to microstructural mechanisms and deformation and the materials which undergo these types of superplasticity can be considered as a superplastic material; Micrograinsuperplasticity Transformation superplasticity Internal stress superplasticity The following processes can be used for forming superplastic sheet materials and they are: Blow forming and vacuum forming Thermo-forming Deep Drawing Superplastic forming with Diffusion Bonding a) Blow forming and vacuum forming basically has a die cavity in which the superplastic sheet are placed, the sheet is placed in between the cavity and a gas pressure is implied to the cavity, from which the superplastic sheet takes the shape of the die cavity. b) Thermo-forming is generally used for forming thermoplastics. In this type of forming there are two dies which in this case is male or female and they are moveable, this moveable die enables the sheet to stretch before a gas pressure is imposed on the sheet to make the required shape of the die cavity. c) Deep Drawing with heat can be imposed on superplastic materials. Firstly deep drawing depends on the hardening of strain to get the needed formability and to prevent damage while forming the material and thus has less advantage compared to Blow forming and thermo-forming. This is because superplastic materials can only harden strain to a limit. d)Superplastic forming (SPF) with the use of Diffusion bonding (DB) is a method which combines both qualities of SPF and DB, but DB is basically not a sheet metal process, since the temperatures used in the process of SPF and DB are similar they can be made use in unique fabricating methods for the materials. The aims of this combined process is to make a damage free forming process and to reduce the number of components and joints used in the processes. 2.2 Materials used: The most common materials used for superplastic forming are as follows: Titanium alloys Aluminium alloys Bismuth-tin alloys Zinc-aluminium alloys Stainless steel Aluminium-lithium alloys 2.3 Advantages of SPF: Less weight and which increases fuel efficiency Performance of the design is improved with the help by its structure Can make very complex parts which in turn has great formability Low cost tooling thus resulting in low cost of the parts Low noise and Does not affect environment 2.4 Limitations of SPF: Low strain rate The time consumption of the process in which it forms the part is one important limitations of the SPF. The whole processs cycle can vary, thus it is used on materials which has less volume. 3. Fine Blanking: Fine blanking is a process in which a type of metal stamping is used to make the flatness of metal and very precise sheared edges of a metal. It is one of the modern methods used in the automotive industry for sheet-metal forming. The process is mainly made use by the automotive industry because of the quality level and the size of the materials and tools used which in turn makes it cost effective. At firstfine blanking was first discovered in Switzerland to make small gears and levers for a watch and clock company and after that grew to be more versatile and feasible for it could be made use in the automotive industry. In this process there is no chance of fracturing of the metal while shearing, for example it can make a number of holes in a metal sheet with perfect shearing and no damage with regards to the size of the metal, thickness of the metal and how far the holes are spaced. The process can generally make very complex shapes in a quick span of time without having to do too m any procedures in the whole process. It is basically a bypass for processes like casting, forging and fabrication in manufacturing. The process is a combination of stamping, punching and an extrusion process. Fine blanking is less expensive than processes like forging or casting but fine blanking although being a very versatile sheet-metal forming process it cannot make 3-d shapes of any use, but some innovative thinking and designing can be put forth to make such products which can economically benefit fine blanking. 3.1 Working of Fine Blanking: Fine blanking generally uses the materials like aluminium, copper, brass, carbon and stainless steel alloys. Fine blanking is a way of metal pressing processes but it has got extra parts to make it unique. It includes two dies (male and female), a guide plate and a V-ring which is also called as a stinger. The male die is the hardening punch which punches the material, whereas the female die is the hardening blanking die. The stinger basically is a sharp edge that surrounds the area of the material that has to be punched. Now, there will be a pressure applied to the punching die so that it cuts the metal and it pushes the cut metal into the empty die. The guide plate helps to hold the material into place firmly so that there is no movement of the material while the pressure is applied, thus the whole process acts like an extrusion rather than a traditional punching process (Hedrick (2006)). Due to the guide plate holding the material so tightly, the materials flatness in perfect, the re is no distortion or damage and there is a very minimum amount of edge burr. Burr is actually called as rough edge of a metal after a cutting, drilling or a punching process. After the punching is done while the material is held tightly by the guide plate, the slug and minute particles are pushed away to keep it clean for the net material to start the process. With a very good fine blanking process one can make many parts in a short period of time and with only one operation. The parts manufactured can be pierced fully like a hole, or partially pierced, embossed and also coined. Many gears, levers and materials have been made by the use of fine blanking. To make a fine blanking process function exclusively to manufacture a quality product, the following points should be required: Fine Blanking Press Fine Blanking Tool Ductile Material 3.2 Advantages: Fine blanking process has got many advantages and they are: By doing fine blanking we can get tremendous flatness of material that is merely never possible to acquire by any other cutting processes, thus it does not have to undergo any other flattening processes after the basic operation of fine blanking. Fine blanking can be used to make small holes in very thick and heavy metals and it can be used on many different metals. It can be used in embossing of metals or can be made use in coining and piercing. The process has got very good accuracy in making materials with precision, control and has good repeatability in production wise. Fine blanking helps to make the edges perfectly sheared,very straight and have no breakage of edges compared to other metal cutting processes. There is very high tolerance level in the tools of fine blanking when making holes and other parts which gives very good quality to the material. Many features can be put in while fine blanking in to just one operation other than having any secondary or tertiary operations. 3.3 Limitations: Fine blanking although being a very versatile and feasible process, it has got a few limitations and they are listed below: Fine blanking can cause damage to the tools used because of the small clearance level of the whole process thus the tools are generally coated with few materials to prevent the wear and tear. In general the stinger or the V-ring consumes a lot of space therefore a lot of material is needed to be used to make a small part. In fine blanking, after the material has been cut out, burring is present in large amounts, so, often there is a need for deburring. Fine blanking process is a slow process which consumes a lot of time to make parts in comparison with the other similar processes. The equipment used is slightly expensive than more conventional punching methods. Since it is a little expensive many companies who want to use fine blanking give a lot of consideration before investing in the tools IV. Conclusion: After doing research on the modern processes used in sheet-metal forming in the automotive industry for manufacturing the latest technology which is involved in this method are Electro-magnetic forming, Superplastic Forming and Fine blanking process. These processes were more efficient and cost effective while compared to traditional processes like bending, stamping, shearing and drawing, but these processes might not be the ultimate result with regards to sheet-metal process. From the three processes discussed above the most favourable process which can be recommended in the automotive industry is Superplastic forming process. The key advantages of Superplastic forming are design structure of the material used, formability of parts, fuel efficiency and low cost in tooling in comparison with the other two processes is much better. Hopefully in the future, there may be more processes which are more efficient for the production in sheet-metal processes in the automotive industry. V. References: A. El-Azab, M. Garnich, A. Kapoor, Modeling of the electromagnetic forming of sheet metals: state-of-the-art and future needs, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 142, pp. 744-754, 2003 Accudyne Engineering Equipment Company: super plastic forming. Available at: http://www.accudyneeng.com/spf.htm [Accessed 12th January 2010] Gallagher, Helen (2001): thefabricator.com. Available at: http://www.thefabricator.com/presstechnology/PressTechnology_Article.cfm?ID=115 [Accessed 12th January 2010]. Harig Manufacturing Corporation: fine blanking Available at: http://www.harigmfg.com/fineblanking.html [Accessed 12th January 2010]. Hedrick, Art (2006): thefabricator.com. Available at: http://www.thefabricator.com/PressTechnology/PressTechnology_Article.cfm?ID=1402 [Accessed 12th January 2010]. R.W.Davies, S. Golovashchenko, J.A. Carpenter, Electromagnetic Forming of Aluminum Sheet, Automotive Lightweighting Materials Fiscal Year 2004 Report, pp. 31-38, 2010
Posted by Unknown at 9:16 AM
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
The Wretched Of The Earth, Franz Fanon Frantz Fanon was a black psychiatrist and author from Martinique who also led a life as a philosopher and revolutionary (Micklin 1). He was from a middle-class family, but soon started supporting very liberal ideas when he personally experienced the abuse of the Martinique people by the French army (at the time, Martinique was a French colony). He spent some time in Lyon for school and even served in the French army. However, he believed that speaking French was a method of accepting French oppression. He wrote a few influential novels, but his most famous novel, The Wretched of the Earth, addressed the abuse of the Algerians by their French colonizers (Micklin 1). Because of its controversy, France eventually banned the book (Ehrenreich 1). Although the novel mainly deals with the struggle of colonized countries in the hands of their European colonizers, it also focuses on how ideology is spread, the effects of imperialism and nationalism, racism, and particularly the role of violen ce in the problem and solution. This book was especially interesting because of its strong style. At first, it seemed that it would be difficult to sympathize with anything in the novel, since it is advertised as a very radical book. But Fanons blunt, passionate words sound so natural and honest that it is almost as if Fanon is lecturing this book from a podium. This is probably because he actually dictated this novel from his deathbed, while he was dying from leukemia (Micklin 1). Fanon wrote this novel so that is has no plot or characters. Instead, he refers to only the colonists and the colonized as the two main opposing forces. He gives some examples of these, most of which are about French Algeria (the French were the colonists and the Algerians were the colonized), since he had seen this occur firsthand. This leads to another reason as to why the book is so effective. Fanon is not speaking from an unbiased perspective. He is putting himself in the place of the colonized, repetitively stating things like the W est wants to condemn us, letting the reader know that the situation has affected him too (57). In addition, this illustrates how passionate he is about the subject since it is personal for him. He also gains credibility and his audience is more likely to listen to him and trust him. Fanon splits this book into five main sections-the first, and perhaps most unforgettable, is called On Violence. In this portion of the text, Fanon basically labels the entire act of colonizing as an act of violence. First of all, the colonists commit violence against the colonized. And in return, the colonized respond with violence. However, the colonists are truly violent. Fanon claims that the work of the colonist is to make even dreams of liberty impossible for the colonized (50). The colonized are only violent in response because that is what it expected of them and it unifies the people (51). This is the only way for them to decolonize and maybe one day reach their goal-according to Fanon-of eventually being the colonists (16). So even though Fanon criticizes colonization as a cycle of violence, he advocates violence as the only solution for colonized to take. The second part of the novel, Grandeur and Weakness of Spontaneity, deals a lot with nationalist parties and the general distrust of rural masses. Fanon discusses the lumpenproletariat, which is the group of people below the working class (81). These people are criminals, prostitutes, homeless people, and anyone who does not fit into the working class. They are crucial for revolutions because they were typically not modernized or educated and probably were not fully integrated into the newly introduced colonial society. Therefore, they would not be oppressed by accepting the new language and culture and would be more willing to take action. So Fanon rallies them to take revolt, as they are probably the most likely to succeed. This is interesting though because if he really is trying to rally the lumpenproletariat, this is a very weak way. The literary rate of the lumpenproletariat probably would not have been very high since they were mostly uneducated. This is only made worse by the fact that this book is particularly difficult to read and understand. So how would the lumpenproletariat be able to read Fanons message (unless they had it tediously dictated to them)? The third section, The Trials and Tribulations of National Consciousness, focuses on racism. Because Frantz Fanon was black, much of his writing is focused on the plights of Africans and their struggles under European rule. But although he focuses on this particular group of people, it is reasonable to assume that his analyses could be extended to most other colonies. Europe, after all, has colonies all across the world and not just in Africa. Another important point Fanon makes in this section is that the behavior of the national bourgeoisie of certain underdeveloped countries is reminiscent of members of a gang who, after every holdup, hide their share from their accomplices and wisely prepare for retirement (118). This is interesting since Fanon obviously portrays the bourgeoisie as the savages as opposed to the less educated, working class. He assumes that their desperation means that their success is short-lived and because of the lack of stable government and political leaders, the army becomes necessary as an arbiter. This continues the cycle of violence just as Fanon mentioned in the first section. In the final section, Colonial War and Mental Disorders, Fanon claims that because of the systematized negation of the other, a frenzied determination to deny the other any attribute of humanity, the colonized are forced to ask who am I in reality? (182). When France colonized the Algerians, the Algerians completely lost their individual identities and their culture. The Europeans impose their own culture on them, but they obviously will never become a true European. This fits in interestingly with their determination to overthrow the government. It is a very smart move to remove each colonized citizens identity, because then they are less likely to fight for themselves if they have no idea who they are. This section was also interesting because it examined different cases of mental disorders resulting from colonization. This included the psychological effects on both the Algerians and the Europeans. So even if a European comes across Fanons novel and is not affected by the Algerians problems, perhaps he would feel sympathy for his fellow Europeans. For example there is the European police officer that met one of his Algerian victims at the hospital (194) and the European police officer that was so used to torturing Algerians that he tortures his own family (196). Both find their personal lives highly influenced by their past actions. This also illustrates that war really does affect everyone, even when it doesnt seem like it. Although this book was interesting and provocative to read, Fanon could have improved in a couple of areas. This novel would have been better if it was more fluid and comprehensible. Fanon seems to jump from point to point without much order. This could partly be attributed to the books translation from French. Since Fanon mostly used his own personal experiences and a few primary sources for the novel, it would have been better with a lot more secondary sources comparing the colonization of Algeria to other instances of colonization. Fanon could have described other situations where colonized people revolted and whether they successfully or unsuccessfully decolonized. If he could have found an example where the colonized used violence successfully, that would have helped his argument a lot. In Jean-Paul Sartres introduction to the novel, he states that many do not agree with Fanons support of violence as a solution (xlvi). But Fanon had valid points in his argument. In fact, maybe F anon should have expanded more on his On Violence section because it seems like this is the only section that offers true solutions to the problem. So Fanon does not necessarily go too far when he says the colonized must rise up and revolt with violence. The colonists used violence during their colonization and didnt seem to listen to the colonizeds protests. So that only leaves violence as a logical solution. Even though this novel is very radical, most of Fanons points are understandable; it is easy to imagine how they could apply to many modern situations-anticolonialism, civil rights, and even our current situation in Iraq. It is interesting to think about this in a time when there are not many direct methods of colonialism. Because of this novels exploration of colonial struggles, The Wretched of the Earth has become one of the most famous novels dealing with decolonization.
Posted by Unknown at 12:58 PM
Monday, August 19, 2019
The American Dream in Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman Material happiness provides the ambition behind seeking the "Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman ." In Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller, Willy Loman's determination to live up to his "American Dream" and to seek material happiness only takes his life. What is the "American Dream"? The "American Dream" cannot be defined. I know that my "American Dream" consists of a Porsche, a large house, and a happy family. Willy Loman's definition does not differ greatly from mine although while trying to pursue this dream, Willy's mind slowly drifted further and further away from reality. The "American Dream" is the idea that any man or woman can make his or her own fortune, despite his or her past. Willy is trying to achieve success through this thought, believing that being "well liked" and working hard will be enough to ensue his success. Willy was wrong. Social class is a major factor in Death of a Salesman. Willy is a salesman. Willy believes that success comes from being well liked and popular and has tried desperately to instill his notions to his two boys Happy and Biff, Willy's biggest aspirations in life. His wife Linda is extremely supportive and is Willy's only connection to reality. While raising his boys and trying to instill his "American Dream", he fails to teach them any sense of morality, leading them down to what he feels is the wrong path. At one point, he defends Biff for stealing just because he was an amazing football player. "Loaded with it. Loaded! What is he stealing? He's giving it back, isn't he? Why is he stealing? What did I tell him? I never in my life told him anything but decent things." (Pg 41. Act 1) Willy's goal throughout life was to climb out of his social class. As a salesman, Willy was a failure and he tried desperately to make his sons never end up like him. As a result, he loses his mind and his grasp on reality. Throughout the story, Willy often has flashbacks of the conversations that he and his brother Ben once had and the author intertwines them in past and present very nicely.
Posted by Unknown at 4:40 PM
Sunday, August 18, 2019
History of Web Based Learning Most students canÃâ¬t wait to graduate high school and move on to college. They canÃâ¬t wait to get away from home to experience new things. What happens if a student canÃâ¬t afford college or they just arenÃâ¬t ready to leave home? How do you complete a Masters or Doctorate program at the age of 51 with three children? This is where web-based learning comes into play. When people think of web-based learning, they tend to picture a man talking you through the computer. That is what I believed until my sister decided to get her master degree online. She worked like a dog; writing papers, attending mandatory chats online, watching videos, and implementing lessons into her classroom. It was not the easy ride that I believed. The emergence of powerful computers has rekindled the hope that machines might act as teachers and make learning easier. Each person learns in his or her own way. No matter what, people need to actively participate to absorb knowledge. Web based learning has a history that isnÃâ¬t just sitting back watching the computer monitor. Computers can only make knowledge acquisition more interesting or less expensive or both. This is why the student who canÃâ¬t afford to go to college can take some courses from home. Also, many people simply canÃâ¬t learn in a classroom environment. Using the web gives the learner a change of pace that makes learning fun. Many forty to fifty years olds may feel very uncomfortable walking around on a college campus. They may be seeking career changes and the Internet allows for the anonymity that is not available anywhere else. Web based learning does not have to take place solely on a college campus. Many elementary and secondary school teachers may assign web projects because Ã ¤since its ease of use makes the Internet trivially accessible to pupils with no prior knowledge of computers, programming or even networking, making it more tempting for teachers to take advantage of it. My teachers did not utilize the web that often, but when they did, I enjoyed it be cause it was a change of pace.
Posted by Unknown at 8:22 PM